Indian Cinematographers Society Ics Founding Member Rajeev Jain Talks About : Kenyan On-Set Terminology
Indian Cinematographers Society ICS Founding Member Rajeev Jain Talks About : Kenyan On-Set Terminology
Rajiv Jain is an Indian Kenyan Director of Photography. Rajiv grew up in the city of Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh, India, where he attended Government Intermediate College. He graduated from the Bhartendu Natya Academy of Dramatic Arts, Lucknow, India in 1985. In January 2009 he became a founding member of the Indian Cinematographers Society ICS.
ACTION! — The verbal cue indicating the camera is rolling.
AD — The Assistant Director.
ADR — Additional (or Automatic) Dialogue Replacement. Sometimes called
ART DlRECTOR — Person who conceives and designs the sets, usually on a
AUDlTlON — A tryout for a film or television role, usually in front of a
casting director, for which a reading is required.
AVAlL — A courtesy situation extended by an agent to a producer indicating
that a performer is available to work a certain job. Avails have no legal or
SACKGROUND — Extras.
BACK-UP — A performer hired to work only if the designated principal
doesn’t perform satisfactorily.
BEAUTY SHOT — On television soap operas, the shot over which the credits
BEST BOY — In films, the assistant to the Electrician.
BlLLlNG — The order of the names in the opening credits of a film or TV
B10 — A resume in narrative form, usually for a printed program or press
BLOCKlNG — Tha actual physical movements by actors in any scene.
BOOKlNG — A firm commitment to a performer to do a specific job.
BOOM — An overhead microphone, usually on an extended pole.
BREAKAWAY — A prop or set piece which looks solid but shatters easily.
BREAKDOWN — A detaiied listing and description of roles available for
casting in a production.
BUYOUT — An offer of full payment in advance in lieu of residuals, when the
CASTlNG DlRECTOR — The producer’s representative responsible for
choosing performers for consideration by the producer.
CATTLE CALL — An audition where anyone can come to audition without an
appointment. Usually there are many people there. Also called an “open
CHANGES — Outfits worn while performing.
CLOSE-UP (CU)– Camera term for tight shot of shoulders and face. Closeups
can be of anything.
COLA — Cost of Living Adjustment.
COLD READlNG — Unrehearsed reading of a scene, usually at auditions.
COMMlSSlON — Percentage of a performer’s earnings paid to agents or
managers for services rendered.
COMPOSlTE — A series of contrasting photos.
CONFLlCT — Status of being paid for services in a commercial for one
advertiser, thereby contractually preventing performing services in a
commercial for a competitor.
COPM — Conference of Personal Managers.
COPY — The script for a commercial or voice over.
CRANE SHOT — A camera shot raised over or above the set or the action.
CRAWL — Usually the end credits in a fiim or TV shot which “crawl” up the
CREDlTS — Performance experience listed on a resume; also, opening names
in a film or a n/ show.
CROSS-FADE — On camera, the transition achieved by retaining one image
as another is introduced. On radio, to change the source of sound by
steadily lowering one and raising another.
CU — Close-up.
CUE — Hand signal by the Stage Manager.
CUTAWAY — A short scene between two shots of the same person, showing
something other than that person.
DAY PLAYER — A performer hired on a daily basis, rather than on a longer
DAYTlME DRAMA — Soap opera.
DEAD AIR — Silence in a broadcast.
DEALER COMMERClAL — A national commercial produced and paid for by a national advertiser and then turned over to local dealers to book air time,
usually with the dealer’s tag added on.
DEMO — An audition tape.
CALLBACK — Any follow-up interview or audition.
DlALECT — A distinctly regional or cultural sound.
DlALOGUE — The scripted words exchanged by performers.
DlRECTOR — The coordinator of all artistic and technical aspects of any
DOLLY — Camera movements forward and backward.
DONUT — A recording made to change information in the body of a
commercial, as opposed to a tag.
DOUBLE — Any performer who actually performs in place of another
DOWNGRADE — Reduction of a performer’s on camera role from principal to
DP — Director of Photography or Cinematographer.
DRESS THE SET — Add such items to the set as curtains, furniture, props,
DRIVE-ON PASS — In Kenya, a pass to drive onto and park on a studio
DROP-PICKUP — A contractual situation where a performer is laid off and
rehired on the same production.
DUPE — A duplicate copy of a film or tape; also, a “dub.”
8×10 — Commonly used size of glossy photos.
18-TO-GO-YOUNGER — Legally 18 years old, but can be convincingly cast as
a younger age.
ELECTRlClAN — Crew chief responsible for lighting.
EMANCIPATED MlNOR — A child who has been given the status of a legal
adult by a judge.
EQUlTV WAlVER — In Kenya, 99-seat (or less) theaters which are
otherwise professional, over which Equity has waived contract provisions
under certain conditions.
EXCLUSlVITY — Achieved by virtue of performing as a principal in a
commercial. During the contractual period of payment, the advertiser has
exclusive rights to the performer’s work, likeness and image with regard to
EXECUTlVE PRODUCER — Person responsible for funding the production.
EXT — Exterior or Exterior shot; a scene shot outside or outside another
EXTRA — Background talent, used only in non-principal roles.
FlCK — Social Security taxes (Federal lnsurance Corporation of Kenya).
FlRST REFUSAL — A courtesy situation extended to producers by agents on
behalf of performers, giving the producer the “right” to decline to employ
the performer before the performer accepts a conflicting assignment.
FlXED CYCLE — For commercials, an established 1 week period for which the
advertiser pays a holding fee to retain the right to use the performer’s
services, likeness and image in a previously produced advertisement.
FLlPPER — Easily removed false teeth for children, used for cosmetic
FORCED CALL — A call to work less than 12 hours after dismissal on the
previous day. See TURNAROUND.
FREELANClNG — Working through more than one franchised agent rather
than signing exclusively with any one agent. Also, working for multiple
employers as a performer, distinguished from permanent employment at a
radiolTV station or network.
FX — Effects, or Special Effects.
GAFFER — In film, a crew member who places lighting equipment.
GLOSSY — A shiny photo-finishing process.
GBFER — An errand runner, who “goes for” this or that.
GRlP — A crew member who moves set pieces or props.
GUARANTEED BlLLlNG — Position of credit specifically negotiated by agent.
HAND MODEL — A performer whose hands are used to double for others.
HEAD SHOT — A still photo, usually 8″x10″, showing head and shoulders.
HlATUS — Time during which a televison series is out of production.
HOLDlNG FEE — Set payment by an advertiser to retain the right to use a
performer’s services, image or likeness on an exclusive basis.
HONEY WAGON — A towed vehicle containing one or more dressing rooms.
Often the honewagon is also used when referring to the toilet.
lNDUSTRlAL — Non-broadcast, often educational, films or tapes.
lNSERTS — Shots, usually close-ups of hands or close business, inserted into
previously shot footage.
INT — Interior, or interior shot.
“IN” TlME — The actual call time or start time; also, return time from a
LlFT — Process of taking a sequence from one commercial to create all or
part of another commercial. Sometimes called a “mechanical lift.”
LlQUlDATED DAMAGES – Monetary penalties imposed on an employer when contract provisions are violated (paid to the Union).
LONG SHOT (LS)– A camera shot which captures the performer’s full body.
LOOPlNG — An in-studio technique matching voice to picture.
MEAL PENALTY — A set fee paid by the producer for failure to provide meals
or meal breaks as specified by the contract.
MONOLOGUE — A solo performance by an actor.
MOS (Mit Out Sound/Motion Only Shot) — Any shot without dialogue or
MOW – Movie of the Week.
NATIONAL COMMERClAL — A commercial produced for use throughout the
NlGHT PREMlUM — A 10% surcharge for work performed after 8 p.m.
NOMEX — Brand name for fire-retardant undergarments.
OFF-CAMERA (OC or OS)– Dialogue delivered without the actor being on
OPEN CALL — An interview situation open to anyone.
OUT CLAUSE — Section of a contract allowing the performer to terminate the
agreement under certain circumstances.
”OUT” TlME — The actual time after which you have changed out of
wardrobe and are released.
OVERDUBBlNG — In studio singing or voice work, the process of laying a new
soundtrack over an old one.
OVERTlME (OT)– Work extending beyond the contractual work day.
PA — Production assistant.
PAN — A camera shot which sweeps from side-to-side.
P&G — Performers who have a cleancut, all-American look as commonly
favored by Procter & Gamble for its commercials or soap operas.
PAYMASTER – An independent talent payment service acting as the
employer of record and signatory.
PER DlEM — Set fee paid by producer on location shoots to compensate performer
for expenditures for meals not provided by the producer
PHOTO DOUBLE — An actor cast to perform on camera in place of another.
“POPPING” or PLOSlVE — the sudden release of blocked-in air causing a popping sound on the mike; usually with the letters “p,b,t,d,k,g. “
POV SHOT — Point-of-View shot; camera angle from the perspective of one
actor (character in the story).
“PREPPY” TYPE — An Eastern prep school-casual appearance.
PRlME TlME — Network programming aired 8-11 p.m. (7-10 p.m. in
Central/Mountain time zones).
PRlNClPAL — A performer with lines or special business which advances the
PRODUCER — Often called the Line Producer; the person responsible for the
day-to-day decision-making on a production.
PROFlClENCY TEST — An advance placement examination taken by high
school students to achieve high school graduation equivalence without
dropping out of school.
PROPS — Easily moved objects used in the course of action of a program.
PSA — Public Service Announcement.
RATlNGS — Public surveys used to measure the number of TV viewers or
REGlONAL COMMERClAL — Produced for airing only in certain areas of the
RELEASE — In commercials, termination of use of a commercial.
RELEASE LETTER — Written dismissal of a talent agent, as required by
RERUN — Rebroadcast of a TV program; in commercials, often called
RESlDUAL — The fee paid to a performer for rebroadcast of a commercial,
film or television program.
RESUME — List of credits, usually attached to an 8×10 or composite.
REWRlTE — Changes in the script, often using color-coded pages.
RHUBARB — live crowd noises (also known as “WALLA”).
RUNAWAY PRODUCTlON — Any production which leaves its usual location
far a different one, usually to save on costs or escape certain regulations.
RUNNlNG PART — In TV series, a recurring role.
SCALE — Minimum payment for services under Union contracts.
SCALE + 10 — Minimum payment plus 10% to cover the agent’s commission,
required in some jurisdictions for agents to receive commissions.
SCREEN TEST — A filmed performance of a short scene to confirm how an
actor performs on camera; increasingly applied to taped tests..
SCRlPT — The written form of a screenplay, teleplay, radio or stage play.
SCRlPT SUPERVlSOR — The crew member assigned to record all changes or
actions as the production proceeds.
SEGUE — In film or tape editing, a transition from one shot to another.
SESSlON FEE — Payment for initial performance in and initial airing of a
SET — An indoor location (often constructed in a studio).
SFX — Sound effects.
SlDES — Pages or scenes from a script, used for auditions.
SIGHT-AND-SOUND –Parent’s right under Union contracts to be within sight
of the child performer at all times.
SlGNATORY — An employer who has agreed to produce under the terms of a
SlLENT BIT — A piece of work without lines featured by the camera.
SlNGLE CARD — A credit in a film or TV show in which only one performer’s
SIT COM — Situation comedy; an episodic television comedy, produced in a
SLATE — A small chalkboard and clapper device, used to mark and identify
shots on film for editing; also, the process of verbal identification by a
performer in a taped audition (e.g., “Slate your name!”).
SOAP — Soap opera or daytime drama.
SOF — Sound on film.
SOT — Sound on tape.
SOUNDTRACK — The audio portion of a film or TV production.
SPEClAL BUSlNESS — Specially directed action by an extra player.
SPOT — A commercial message, usually booked at random.
STAGE MANAGER — The person who oversees the technical aspects of an instudio production.
STANDARD UNlON CONTRACT — The standard format/contract approved
by the Unions and offered to performers prior to the job.
STANDARDS & PRACTlCES — The network TV censorship departments.
STAND-INS — Extra players used to substitute for featured players, usually
for purposes of setting lights.
“STICKS” — Slate or clapboard.
STORYBOARD — A pictured sequential rendering of the dialogue and action
in a commercial.
STUDlO — A building which accommodates film or TV production.
STUDIO TEACH ER — Set teacher or tutor, hired to provide education to
working young performers; also responsible for enforcing Child Labor Laws
and Minors’ provisions in the Union contracts.
STUNT COORDlNATOR — The person in charge of designing and supervising
the performance of stunts and hazardous activities.
STUNT DOUBLE — A specially trained performer who actually performs
stunts in place of a principal player.
SUBMlSSlON — An agent’s suggestion to a casting director for a role in a certain production.
SWEETENlNG — In singing/recording, the process of adding additional
voices to previously recorded work.
SYNDlCATION — Selling television programs to individual stations rather
than to networks.
TAFT-HARTLEY — A federal statute which allows 30 days after first
employment before being required to join a Union.
TAG — An introduction or ending to a commercial or television show to
identify a dealer, address, phone number, etc. Often a bit in a television
show which is the last bit the audience sees.
TAKE — The clapboard indication of a shot “taken” or printed.
TAKE 5 — The announcement of periodic five minute breaks.
T&R — Talent and Residuals, a talent payment company, or paymaster.
TELE PROMPTER — The brand name of a device which enables a broadcaster
to read a script while looking into the lens. It is usually located near to the
TEST MARKET — Airing of a commercial in one area to determine response.
TlGHT SHOT — Framing of a shot with little or no space around the central
figure(s) or feature(s); usually a close up.
THEATRlCAL — Television shows or feature film work, as opposed to
3/4″ TAPE — lndustrial quality video tape; requires special tape deck.
TlME & 1/2 — Overtime payment of 1 1/2 times the hourly rate.
TRADES — Trade papers, periodicals carrying entertainment information.
TRAlLER — A series of excerpts or clips, used to promote a film or television
TRUCKlNG — A camera move, involving shifts side to side.
TURNAROUND — The number of hours between dismissal one day and call
time the next day.
TWO-SHOT — A camera framing of two persons.
UNDERSTUDY — A performer hired to do role only if the featured player is
unable to perform.
UPGRADE — Acknowledgement by a producer that a player hired as an extra
has performed principal work, resulting in principal payment.
USE CYCLE — Any 13 week period during which a commercial is actually
aired; used to determine payment schedule for residuals and often differing
from holding cycles.
VOlCE OVER (VO)– Also OS; off-camera dialogue.
WAlVERS – Board-approved permission for deviation from the terms of a
WALK-BN — A very brief role.
WARDROBE — The clothing a performer wears on camera.
WARDROBE FlTTlNG — A paid session held prior to production to prepare a
WlLD SPOT — A commercial which is contracted to air on a station-bystation
basis, rather then by network.
WlLD TRACK — Soundtrack having no direct relationship to the picture.
WORK PERMlT — A legal document required to allow a child to work, issued
by various state or local agencies.
WRAP — Finishing a production.
ZED CARD — A composite, usually 5″x7″, used for print work or modeling.
ZOOM — A camera technique with a special lens to adjust the depth of a
shot accomplished without moving the camera.
Tags: Academy, Arts, Bhartendu, Bollywood, Cinematographer, Director of Photography, Dramatic, Dubai, India, Indian, Jain, Kenya, Kenyan, Natya, Rajeev, Rajiv
Author: Born in Los Angeles, David Henry Hwang is the son of immigrant Chinese American parents; his father worked as a banker, and his mother was a professor of piano. Educated at Stanford University, from which he earned his B.A. in English in 1979, he became interested in theatre after attending plays at the American Conservatory in San Francisco. His marginal interest in a law career quickly gave way to his involvement in the engaging world of live theatre. By his senior year, he had written and produced his first play, FOB (an acronym for “fresh off the boat”), which marked the beginning of a meteoric rise as a playwright. After a brief stint as a writing teacher at a Menlo Park high school, Hwang attended the Yale University School of Drama from 1980 to 1981. Although he didn’t stay to complete a degree, he studied theatre history before leaving for New York City, where he thought the professional theatre would provide a richer education than the student workshops at Yale.
About the Author
Born in Los Angeles, David Henry Hwang is the son of immigrant Chinese American parents; his father worked as a banker, and his mother was a professor of piano. Educated at Stanford University, from which he earned his B.A. in English in 1979, he became interested in theatre after attending plays at the American Conservatory in San Francisco. His marginal interest in a law career quickly gave way to his involvement in the engaging world of live theatre. By his senior year, he had written and produced his first play, FOB (an acronym for “fresh off the boat”), which marked the beginning of a meteoric rise as a playwright. After a brief stint as a writing teacher at a Menlo Park high school, Hwang attended the Yale University School of Drama from 1980 to 1981. Although he didn’t stay to complete a degree, he studied theatre history before leaving for New York City, where he thought the professional theatre would provide a richer education than the student workshops at Yale.
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